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Track materials Sleepers Wooden sleepers Page: 223-01 Wood sleepers For over 150 years, tracks are laid on wooden sleepers. Types of wood, dimension, stacking, planning and drilling, pre-assembly, emerging head sleeper etc. have been explored over decades of work and implemented the research result in production. The wooden track sleepers of the Deutsche Bahn are exclusively made of beech wood. Turnout sleepers exclusively of oak tree. In northern European countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, as well as in some German private railways, track and pre-stressed sleepers made of pinewood are used. To avoid that the wood comes from a disputed or illegal logging, a "Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes" (German: Certification system for sustainable forest management PEFC) was shortly brought into life PEFC in year 1999. PEFC is an international forest certification system and until today the world's largest independent organization to ensure continuous improvement of sustainable forest management, ensuring environmental, social and economic standards. Wood processing firms can be certified under this standard and ensures their customers that for every felled tree, a new will be replanted and thus causing no harm to the environment. The wooden sleepers are impregnated with the remains of coal tar. This is a very complex mixture of substances, which consists of approximately 10,000 individual compounds. Under the terms of Western European Institute for impregnation - W.E.I. It is classified into two classes, A, B and C according to the content of Benzopyrene. In the meanwhile these W.E.I.-classes have been transferred to the European Standard DIN EN 13991. Today, for wooden sleepers in Deutsche Bahn coal tar oils of W.E.I.-type C are used with a benzopyrene content of < 50 ppm. Without scale/schematic diagram Date of issue 08/10